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Later 19th Century Reconstruction -
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LATER 19TH CENTURY, RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD, 1865-1901
- Reconstruction *
- Plessy vs. Ferguson * (1890 Louisiana) - "separate but equal" doctrine (see: 973.872)
- Buffalo Soldiers * life on the frontier
- On the western frontier with Buffalo Soldiers *
- The Battle of Wounded Knee *, South Dakota the last major Sioux and US Army battle (see: 973.862)
- Geronimo *, Apache chief surrendered on Sept. 4, 1886 (see: 973.852)
- Battle of * Little Big Horn, Montana (1876) - Custer attacks Indian encampment (see: 973.822)
- In 1876, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and other Cheyenne leaders defeat Custer at Little Big Horn *, Montana (see: 973.822)
ANDREW JOHNSON ADMINISTRATION, 1865-1869
- Biography * of Andrew Johnson
- First Lady - Eliza McCardle Johnson *
- most southern states were reconstructed
- "black codes" to regulate the freedmen were beginning to appear.
- Thirteenth Amendment * was ratified December 6, 1865 abolishing slavery (see: 973.052)
- The Civil Rights Act of 1866 established Negroes as American citizens and forbade discrimination against them
- Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act by dismissing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. The House of Representatives impeached him. When tried by the Senate, he was acquitted by one vote.
- 1868 - The Fort Laramie Treaty * of 1868 creates the Great Sioux Reservation which includes most of South Dakota west of the Missouri River and the Black Hills. The U.S. Government pledges to keep whites out of this territory.
- 1874 - Lt. Colonel George Custer's * expedition discovers gold in the Black Hills which causes a rush of prospectors to come to the area. The appearance of whites causes friction as the Native Americans defend their homes and daily lifestyle.
- June 25, 1876 - Custer attacks a large Indian encampment. At the Battle of Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull *, Gall, Crazy Horse, and several Cheyenne leaders defeat Custer who loses his men - - more than 200 men in the battle.
- Secretary of State William H. Seward * arranged purchase of Alaska * for $7.2 million(see: 973.812) (Alaska Treaty * with Russia - March 30, 1867)
ULYSSES SIMPSON GRANT ADMINISTRATION, 1869-1877
- Biography * of Ulysses S. Grant
- First Lady - Julia Dent Grant *
- Great Chicago Fire * (August 8, 1871) loss of $ 196 million (see: 977.3)
- May 10, 1869 - Promontory *, Utah transcontinental railroad completed (see: 385)
- 1872 - Mare Island * Navy Shipyard, Vallejo, California with its drydock capabilities
- 1874 - Fort Robinson * built along the Bozeman Trail which led through a Sioux hunting ground and was disputed by Chief Red Cloud *. The settlers were trying to get to Montana gold fields.
RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES ADMINISTRATION, 1877-1881
- Biography * of Rutherford B. Hayes retired to "Spiegel Grove"
- First Lady - Lucy Ware Webb Hayes *
- 1877 - Federal troops called out to face striking railroad workers
- 1878 - Bland Allison Silver Purchase Act passes above Hayes' veto
- 1879 - Carlisle Indian School * in Carlisle, Pennsylvania for Native Americans
JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD ADMINISTRATION, 1881-1881
- Biography * of James Garfield
- James A. Garfield National Historic Site * [ Lawnfield * ]
- July 2, 1881 - President Garfield was assassinated * by Charles Guiteau * who was determined to be insane. The constant probing for the bullet with non-sterile instruments caused blood poisoning.
- First Lady - Lucretia Rudolph Garfield *
CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR ADMINISTRATION, 1881-1885
- Biography * of Chester Alan Arthur
- First Lady - Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur *
GROVER CLEVELAND ADMINISTRATION, 1885-1889
- Biography * of Grover Cleveland retired to "Westland"
- First Lady - Frances Folsom Cleveland *
- Geronimo *, Apache chief surrendered on Sept. 4, 1886 (see: 973.802)
- Haymarket Riot * in Chicago, Illinois of May 4, 1886 follows labor battles (see: 977.3)
- 1888 - Chinese Exclusion Act
- Dispute with Britain over Venezuela
BENJAMIN HARRISON ADMINISTRATION, 1889-1893
- Biography * of Benjamin Harrison
- First Lady - Caroline Lavinia Scott Harrison *
- 1890 - After Sitting Bull is murdered on the Standing Rock Reservation, Big Foot and his Mnikowoju band flee to Pine Ridge seeking the protection of Red Cloud. Custer's 7th Cavalry massacred more than 250 members of Big Foot's band on December 29th at Wounded Knee. This event is considered to be the last major conflict between the U.S. Army and the Great Sioux Nation.
- The Battle of Wounded Knee *, South Dakota the last major Sioux and US Army battle (see: 978.3)
- Johnstown * Flood, Pennsylvania on May 31, 1889 where 2,200 were lost (see: 974.8)
GROVER CLEVELAND ADMINISTRATION, 1893-1897
- Biography * of Grover Cleveland
- First Lady - Frances Folsom Cleveland *
- 1886 - Statue of Liberty dedicated
- 1886 - Presidential Succession Act
- Plessy vs. Ferguson * (1890 Louisiana) - "separate but equal" doctrine (see: 973.801)
- 1893 - Pullman Strike
- 1893 - Economic crisis of 1893
WILLIAM MCKINLEY ADMINISTRATION, 1897-1901
- Biography * of President William McKinley who is shot on September 6, 1901 and dies on September 14, 1901.
- First Lady - Ida Saxon McKinley *
- Ellis Island * - 1892 opened as NY immigration depot (see: 917.47)
- International Ladies' Garment Workers Union * - founded in New York City in November, 1900
- Age of Imperialism * - conflict in China
- Boxer Rebellion * in Beijing - U.S. helps to put down the "Boxers" in 1900.
- Spanish American War, 1898
- Admiral George Dewey was sent to the Philipines with the U.S.S. Olympia * leading the US fleet in battle at Manila Bay.
- Tampa Bay Hotel * used as military headquarters for planning strategies against Cuba
Educator is the recipient of the Miss Rumphius Award
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Copyright © 1997 Marjorie Duby, practitioner formerly sited at Joseph Lee School, Boston, MA.
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Last modified: September 19, 2005.
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