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Economics, labor, finances - Dewey 330

[a constantly changing URL database with content relevant to elementary school curricula]

Creation of labor unions Labor issues in the garment industry

Labor issues in the coal-mining industry Financial economics (Banks, money, investing)
Socialism and related systems Assorted United States business successes
Development of the steel industry Development of the financial industry
Development of the railroad and transportation industry Development of the textile (garment) industry

Economics (Dewey 330)

Labor economics [Employment, people at work] (Dewey 331)


  • Working hours * of women in factories
  • Women's History * in America
  • Life * of the 19th century Industrial Worker


  • 1894 - The Pullman *, Strike, Chicago, Illinois was the first national strike in the United States. President Cleveland sent in Federal troops against the workers.
  • 1900 - International Ladies' Garment * Workers Union - founded in New York City in November, 1900.
  • United Steelworkers of America * (USWA)
  • 1916 - American Federation of Teachers * received charter from the American Federation of Labor
  • 1935 - United Auto Workers * (UAW)
  • Communication Workers of America * (CWA) [timeline *]
  • 1955 - AFL and CIO merge to the AFL-CIO *


  • 1830s - Textile mills student * research based on a written challenge and two [1 and 2] first-person character journals
    • 1824 - Pawtucket, Rhode Island weavers strike (1824) in the first such action by women (see: 973.52)
    • Lowell, Massachusetts
      • 1848 - Lowell Rules *
      • Work, Lyddie, Work * - textile mills [Lyddie by Katherine Paterson]
    • 1911 - New York City - The Triangle Shirtwaist * Company sweatshop fire on March 25, 1911 kills 146 people mostly Jewish immigrant women.


  • Ohio * coal mining in the Gilded Age (* 1878-1889) and Progressive Era (* 1890-1913)
  • 1894 - Osage Coal * and Mining Company (Indian Territory) strike [Choctaw or Chickasaw royalties?]
  • 1897 - Lattimer * Massacre - anthracite miners in northeastern Pennsylvania
  • 1902 - Anthracite * Coal Strike in Pennsylvania for 160 days.
  • 1903 - Texas and Pacific Coal Mining Company mined coal for the Texas and Pacific Railroad - The miners went on strike in Thurber, Texas, a coal company town, in 1903 and were later unionized.
  • 1914 - Ludlow [* song] Massacre * Coal Mining Strike - Colorado - On April 20, 1914 violence erupted in a United Mine Workers tent colony near Ludlow, Colorado because of tension between striking coal miners, private mine guards, and units of the Colorado National Guard.
  • United Mine Workers * of America * history
  • early 1900s - 1918 - Joseph Hillstrom (Swedish immigrant) and convicted murderer was executed by a firing squad at the Utah Federal Penitentiary and early * mining
  • 1920 - Matewan (Mingo County), West Virginia unorganized coal miners seek to join the United Mine Workers of America. Owners * stop them.
  • 1936 - The Congress of Industrial Organization * (CIO) - work of John L. * Lewis * Gompers (1850-1924), cigarmaker and union president/trade * unionist [Gompers' * Papers and life's * timeline which documents the life of the working man through union formations]

Financial economics [Banks, money, investing] (Dewey 332)

  • NASDAQ * Stock Market
  • New York Stock Exchange *
    • In 1792, twenty-four * New York City stockbrokers and merchants signed the Buttonwood Agreement for the selling of securities. [listed * companies]
  • American Stock Exchange *
  • 1860 - Standard & Poor's began to provide independent analysis and information to the financial community to help them figure out the market's value. [S & P * Indices]
  • Dow Jones Indexes *

Economics of land & energy
[Nuclear power, hyroelectric power, conservation] (Dewey 333)

Cooperatives (Dewey 334)

Socialism & related systems (Dewey 335)

  • Eugene Debs - Socialist party
  • "Big" William (Bill) * Haywood - radical trade leader and head of the Western Federation of Miners
  • 1898 - Mary Harris "Mother" * Jones (The Miner's * Angel) was an organizer for the United Mine Workers, worked to establish the Social Democratic Party in 1898, lectured for the Socialist Party of America, and helped to form the Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies *). She was involved in the great railroad strike of 1877, the Haymarket riot of 1896, and the steel strike of 1919.
  • Elizabeth Gurley * Flynn - "Rebel Girl" from a socialist family and as a member of the Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies *).
  • 1929 - Sacco and * Vanzetti executed as anarchists
  • 1886 - May 4 - The Haymarket Riot erupts * at McCormick Reaper Works
    • Photo history *
    • Haymarket anarchists *

Public finance (Dewey 336)

International economics (Dewey 337)

Production and Manufacturing (Dewey 338)


  • John Davidson Rockefeller * (1839-1937) Standard Oil * Company (see: 923.8) [image *]
  • Henry Morrison Flagler (1830-1913) [image *] - major stockholder in Standard Oil and railroad magnate who built the railroad * across the Florida Keys. Involved in reclaiming * the Florida Everglades.
  • Charles Lockhart [image *
  • Peter H. Watson [image *]
  • W. G. Warden [image *



  • Robert Morris - Philadelphia merchant and banker
  • Stephen * Girard (1750-1831) - Philadelphia shipping merchant and opponent of the First * Bank of the United States (1794) with his Girard * Bank
  • J. P. (John Pierpont) * Morgan - (1837-1913) of * Connecticut - financier and banking magnate - arranged for General Electric merger, Federal Steel Company, and its merger with Carnegie Steel to form United States Steel Corporation


  • Henry * Clay Frick * (1849-1919) - coke and steel magnate - originally his coal mining was associated with Andrew Carnegie's steel manufacturing

(Cause and affect: the Gold Rush influence on San Francisco

  • Cornelius Vanderbilt * (1794-1877) - shipping magnate
  • Asa Whitney (1797-1877 - This wealthy tea merchant proposed to Congress in 1848 the idea of a railroad from Lake Michigan through South Pass to the Pacific
  • Thomas Clark Durant - Union Pacific Railroad - transcontinental railroad
  • Theodore Dehone Judah * (1826-1863) - Central Pacific Railroad * [Central Pacific Railroad images * , history * with Chinese contributions *]
  • George M. Pullman * (1831-1897) - building contractor whose concern with sleeping accommodations on trains led to the formation of the Pullman Palace Car Company.



[From Farm to Factory -
Uxbridge, Douglas, Sutton, Mendon, Leicester, Upton (William Knowlton's Hat Factory)]

  • Samuel * Slater (1768-1835) [image *]
    • 1793 - Slater * Mill, Pawtucket, Rhode Island on the BLACKSTONE RIVER
    • Slater (home ** Carpenter's clothier's shop.
  • 1793 - Moses Brown (1738–1836) - Rhode * Island manufacturer, philanthropist, abolitionist after becoming a Quaker [family * - younger brother of John Brown] and Samuel Slater hired * women at their mill


  • Henry Cabot Lowell *
    • 1835 - Boott * Manufacturing Company named for Kirk Boott, the first mill agent, took advantage of the dam on the MERRIMACK RIVER at Pawtucket Falls that fed the area. Abbott Lawrence, John Amory Lowell and Nathan Appleton * (1779-1861) used Slater's "Rhode Island System" where the spinning was done in a factory and "put out" the spun yarn to be woven into cloth at workers' homes. They produced * "drillings, sheetings, shirtings, linens, fancy dress goods, and yarns." [images and activities -Boot Cotton * Mills of Lowell, Massachusetts]
    • Abbott Lawrence * (1792-1855) - merchant, manufacturer, diplomat, statesman, philanthropist born in Groton, Massachusetts


    • Francis Cabot Lowell and his Boston friends improved * the design and organization of the early New England textile mills with his Boston Manufacturing Company * on the CHARLES * RIVER in Waltham, Massachusetts, producing cloth by 1815. They used a vertically integrated factory that included all operations for cloth production under one roof. This place had many "firsts" related the textile mills and helped to make Massachusetts the birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution.


    • NASHUA * RIVER activities * based on "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry [lesson *]


  • 1629 - Kiliaen Van Rensselaer (1580-1644) got Rensselaerswyck * in New Netherlands in the upper Hudson Valley from the Dutch * West India Company in 1629 where a patroonship was set up in the location of the present-day Albany * , Rensselaer, and Columbia counties.
  • Robert Livingston (1654-1728) - Hudson River area


  • 1850s - At Moon's Lake House, Saratoga Springs, New York, George Crum prepares thinly sliced, fried potatoes - POTATO * CHIPS
  • 1853 - Elisha Graves Otis (1811-1861) - E. G. Otis Company producing elevators for freight and then safety elevators * for passengers
  • 1872 - John Kimberly and Charles Clark formed a company in Neenah, Wisconsin on the Fox River to manufacture paper. They produced Cellucotton * material for bandages in the war effort. They produced tissue paper which was used as a gas-mask filter. After World War I in 1927, they promoted the product as a disposable cleaning tissue that removed makeup and cold * cream - - Kleenex - - a substitute for face towels. When people also used it to blow their noses, they advertised it as useful for * colds.
  • 1876 - Charles * Hires markets his herbal drink as "root * beer."
  • 1879 - Franklin Winfield Woolworth (1852-1919) begins a five-cent store in Utica, New York which failed. He opened a successful five-and-ten-cent store at Lancaster, Pennsylvania. In 1911, the F. W. Woolworth Company was incorporated.
  • 1886 - Samuel C. Johnson began his parquet * flooring business. His customers needed wax to care for the floor.
  • 1889 - George * Eastman (1854-1932) - In Rochester, New York, the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company began (renamed Eastman Kodak Company, 1896) - Produced * cameras including the Brownie * cameras, advertised *, and through the years * developed process for users to send film for developing.
  • 1892 - William Wrigley, Jr. (1861-1932) switches from selling soap powder to the creation of the Wrigley Chewing * Gum Company. His first gums were Lotta Gum, Vassar, Juicy Fruit, and Spearmint.
  • 1899 - Sebastian S. Kresge (1867-1966) founds S. S. Kresge * Company
  • 1902 - George Dayton opens Goodfellows in Minneapolis later changing the name to the Dayton Dry Goods Company. In 1971, Dayton Corporation merges with the J. L. Hudson Company to form the Dayton Hudson Corporation. In 1979, Target Stores becomes the top revenue maker for the corporation.
  • 1903 - King C. * Gillette (1851-1932) and William Nickerson and their Gillette Safety * Razor Company (formerly called American Safety Razor Company) began manufacturing razors * in Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 1906 - Will Keith (W. K.) * Kellog (1860-1951) forms the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company (Michigan)
  • 1921 - Otto Schnering seeks suggestions from employees for a candy bar that mixed caramel, fudge, peanuts, and chocolate that his Curtiss Candy Company produced. "Baby Ruth" * won based on the name of Grover Cleveland's oldest daughter. Babe Ruth was breaking records for the New York Yankees. The association of the names and the product helped to sell the product.
  • 1930 - Carl Smith, a sales person for General Mills, is served a quickly made biscuit in Portland, Oregon. The marketing for * Bisquick followed shortly from General Mills.
  • 1938 - Earl S. * Tupper (1907- ) - Tupperware * inventor who worked with * plastics and sold his product through home party sales
  • 1940 - Frank J. Zamboni * (1901-1988 ) After their ice-making business slumped during the Great Depression of the early 1930s, the Zambonis opened an outdoor rink with a roof over it to use their ice-making equipment. They began to develop ice re-surfacing * machines.
  • 1962 - Sam Walton (1918-1992) who had opened Walton's Five and Dime in 1950 in Bentonville, Arkansas, opened his first Wal-Mart (1962) * in Rogers, Arkansas.
  • 1962 - S. S. Kresge opens K * Mart (discount marketing)
  • 1962 - F. W. Woolworth begins Woolco (discount marketing)
  • 1962 - Dayton Hudson opens its Target * chain (discount marketing)
  • 1964 - Buffalo * wings prepared by Teressa and Frank Bellisimo at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York.
  • 1975 - William (Bill) H. * Gates (1955-) - Begins Microsoft * Corporation, a computer software development company in Redmond, Washington.
  • 1978- Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield begin Ben * and Jerry's Homemade, a Vermont-based manufacturer of ice cream, frozen yogurt, and sorbet.

Macroeconomics & related topics [water conservation] (Dewey 339)

Educator is the recipient of the Miss Rumphius Award.

As of December 4, 2003, you are visitor to Inquiry Unlimited's Dewey 330 Economics, labor, and finance resources.

Last modified: August 31. 2014.

Copyright © 1997 Marjorie Duby, practitioner formerly sited at Joseph Lee School, Boston, MA. Inquiry Unlimited is a work in progress.

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